Tuesday, June 11, 2013

Amaryllis Sculpted by Gravitational Modulations and The Evolution of Life

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« Though it is distasteful to some, scientists must accept theories that agree with experiment, not their own preconceived notions. »
-Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow
The Grand Design p. 72


The article that follows describes the experiments I did with Amaryllis bulbs in the spring of 2012 and 2013 to verify the following hypothesis:

[Gravity propelled forward by the Alignment Geometries of Celestial Mechanics (AGCM)] plays a major role in the evolution of life. Gravity with AGCM are the architects of all DNA including human DNA, and account for biodiversity on Earth. Gravity with AGCM will override DNA in offsprings if the AGCM of the times induce a feature not yet included in a species. This law of nature will be found at work on any planet within any solar system where life is evolving.

My methodology is based on René Descartes’ assertion that given a state of “initial conditions”* it should be possible to make predictions as to what will happen to a system within a given period of time. The laws of nature will determine how that system will evolve from those initial conditions over time*2 and prove the predictions if the hypothesis being studied is correct. This is also how scientific experiments are done today but with more sophisticated equipment. I used very modest tools to measure my subjects: a ruler and a moisture meter. I predicted a very simple outcome: a difference in the height of the stems of two different groups of Amaryllis flowers planted at two different chronological times with two different distribution of mass, AGCM, at the moment of each potting. I use Amaryllis bulbs for my experiments because they produce easy to observe stems within a short amount of time, usually between 4 to 6 weeks.

Better-equipped scientists may go further with this experiment and measure more elements than I did. My objective at this very primitive stage of exploration is just to prove that it happens so the concept can evolve to more advanced studies. We must first understand how the hypothesis works in order to later produce technology that will be useful in a variety of applications.

The concept for my “set of initial conditions” is to generate two sets of Amaryllis bulbs that are of the same species with the same expected growth patterns within a given time frame. Then transplant each set at two different times with two different distributions of mass on the eastern horizon at the moment of planting the bulbs. This way I am slicing into the «…infinite and unceasing operation of endless intertwined causes*3…» to observe what is the underlying process that links the microcosm to the macrocosm. The positions of the Moon and planets, or the distribution of mass, within our solar system will vary in reference to the Earth coordinates where I will plant the bulbs at the two separate times of planting. The plantings occur at the same Earth coordinates but in two different time frames. The consequence of this will alter the quantity of G force being loaded*4 into the bulbs as their metabolisms are being activated to make flowers. Also there will be a divergence in the angle in which the force is moving towards the newly planted bulbs from one time frame to the next. One group receives the message from gravity to produce taller stems and the other group will produce shorter stems because it will be held back by gravity that instructs the plants to slow down.

This experiment answers Robert L. Jaffe’s*5 question in his brilliant article TIMES OF OUR LIVES «How did the chemistry of life become locked onto the rhythms of celestial mechanics?» By gravitational modulations propelled forward by ACGM affecting all living systems since life emerged on Earth starting at the molecular level as gravity clumped particles together.

About gravity

The force of gravity has been at work since the Big Bang giving substance to our known universe. Isaac Newton’s discovery of gravity and his law of universal gravitation with Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity opened the way for new technology that is revealing more and more facets of this important force. The extraordinary work by NASA with the Hubble telescope, the Casini Mission, and the cameras that have the capacity to photograph early universe radiation that illustrates the clumping action of gravity on particles after the Big Bang*6 are the inspirations for my hypothesis. Gravity is the weakest force in the universe yet it bends light. It has intensity and direction like a vector. It generates mass and fusion that will form stars. It maintains planets in orbit around the Sun. It plays an important role in the production of Black Holes.

I have established the role of gravity in the Amaryllis experiments with the articles Moons of Saturn, gravity and the evolution of life and The Phenomena of Evolution Captured.

Although scientists describe gravity as a constant force, on Earth it equals 1 G, my experiments show that even minute changes in the G force field will have huge impact on life forms. I believe this is so because gravity bends light, and affects particles. Gravity does not change a subject at once but affects its biochemistry that then affects its metabolism that then alters the mass of the subject. Gravity is a consummate artist fashioning infinite forms and behaviors as we can now observe again thanks to NASA and its great scientists, and this is what my experiment is designed to illustrate.

Since I want to verify the effect of gravity on evolution, I must see if it will alter the growth of same plant species within a reasonable time scale by producing the slightest yet constant difference between the two groups. If we can observe two completely different characteristics consistently in each of the two groups this will validate my hypothesis. Then we can deduce how the interactions of AGCM and gravity over billions of years of evolution affected the rich diversity and progression of life forms.

The experiment

Although I have made precise calculations for the time-space of the planting, and prepared a mathematical diagram of the distribution of the mass within the solar system at those times, I will not publish them here. I have kept rigorous records and photographed as many pertinent details I could should scientists wish to examine them within a professional collaboration. Only after such time will I publish my calculations.

The first experiment with Amaryllis bulbs was done in the spring of 2012. I am a contemporary artist and I wanted to present the Amaryllis experiment as a living installation to conclude Phenomene Art XI: Force. The object of this Phenomene Art was to reveal the force of gravity by letting it sculpt the living substance of the plants. My paintbrushes are my precise calculations; my canvas, the living flesh of the plants; the object to be illustrated, the effect of gravitational modulations on life forms. Visitors of the exhibit could witness with their own eyes what I am showing you with photography: how the chemistry of life is entangled with celestial mechanics. Of course I had to make sure I was right about my concept before bringing it to the public. In the first experiment, I succeeded in cultivating two groups of two different sizes by transplanting them on the same day but with 8 hours difference between them. The reason for this time difference is to allow the mass of the solar system to shift in relation to the place where I would sow the plants. The group that produced the shortest stems was planted first thus demonstrating that the sequential fact of being planted first held no advantages on the size the plant would attain. Also it must be noted that I do not take the leaves into consideration in this study because Amaryllis bulbs produce abundant foliage once the flowers have bloomed to regenerate the bulb. I want to focus on one simple measurable element that can be easily seen by anyone, the stem.

After submitting my exhibition proposal to many institutions, of many disciplines, and having the project declined, I decided to do a new Amaryllis experiment and this time measure the soil moisture. I realize how new my model of evolution of life is and that it was only my second attempt and more will need to be done before it is accepted as a law of nature, but I was 100% convinced my hypothesis would work. So I once again proceeded with the experiment.

I had calculated two different time frames within which I would plant 3 Amaryllis bulbs of the same variety each time. For the 2013 experiment I bought 6 Hippeastrum Benfica Amaryllis from the company Royal Colors. This variety typically produces plants whose stem height can be between 30 cm to 60 cm. In this experiment, I do not expect a whole new species to manifest; I expect one striking feature to differentiate between one group and the next. If this happens, it means evolutionary features are conditioned by the times, appear slowly, one change at a time induced by the command of gravity on the living being. That is why in the hypothesis I claim gravity will override DNA to bring out of the living being those qualities intimated by the AGCM of the times. In my experiment, I expected gravity to promote a difference in size and character in the two groups.

To produce the TALL plants I calculated a time frame when there was a strong accumulation of planets on the eastern horizon. There would be more mass therefore more G force aligned with that point of the Earth’s coordinates as it referred to my position on Earth.

To produce the SMALL plants I calculated a time frame when there were no planets on the eastern horizon so the mass would relate to the Earth coordinates where the planting occurred from a different angle than the TALL group.

In this experiment I also verified the quantity of water being consumed by the plants to understand the impact of my hypothesis on the ecology. This point intrigued me particularly because of the popular belief that the abundant planting of trees is the solution to our ecological woes. My experiment demonstrates that there could be uncalculated factors in this practice that could seriously damage both the environment and the plants.

I planted the six bulbs from the 2012 experiment and six fresh bulbs. I planted 3 bulbs from 2012 on April 19 2013 ( 1, 2, 3 ); 24 hours later, April 20 2013, I planted 3 fresh bulbs ( A, B, C ). These six bulbs were determined to produce the TALL group. Their temperament should be aggressively productive reminiscent of male athletes. 25 hours and 20 minutes later, on April 21 2013, I planted the SMALL group consisting of the remaining fresh bulbs ( D, E, F ) and the 3 left from the 2012 experiment ( 4, 5, 6 ). These six bulbs should produce smaller stems with a temperament reminiscent of a coquettish woman that takes her time getting beautiful. I would measure their progress at regular interval to document their growth and attitude. All plants had the same quantity of moisture retaining potting soil and received the same amounts of water for the first month. I must note also that what I was looking for with plants 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 is whether they will show any mutations.

First the new plants A, B, C, D, E and F

After two weeks, A, B and C demonstrated their fiery nature with A taking the lead being the tallest and most prolific. D, E and F were noticeably slower, almost cautious in their development. My prediction had come true in terms of the observed temperament separating the two groups. Now lets look at the numbers. I present them to you as total sums of stem height per group and total amount of moisture per group. I measured the lengths in centimeters and my moisture meter measures in divisions of 10, I took 3 measures of moisture per plant at a time, so I report the total over 90 it being full capacity moisture per group.

                                    TALL                                      SMALL

Week 1)                      0 cm, 43/90                              0 cm, 49.5/90

Week 2)                      113.5 cm, 38.5/90                  20 cm, 49.5/90

Week 3)                      215 cm, 58.5/90                     96 cm, 65/90

Week 4)                      316.5 cm, 47/90                     251 cm, 36/90

In Week 4 the water levels shifted from the TALL taking in more water to the SMALL taking in more water. TALL was in full bloom while SMALL was gaining momentum to produce its flowers. It was also interesting that plant B that had been the consistent smallest in TALL also consumed less water during the first four weeks.

 On June 10 2013 I did the final tally for the total in stem heights:

A ) produced 154 cm, B ) produced 145 cm, C ) produced 150 cm Total: 449cm

D ) produced 88 cm, E ) produced 88 cm, F ) produced 96 cm        Total: 268 cm

My experiment was a complete success.

Last years plants 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6

I transplanted the TALL from last year within the time frame that would produce tall plants, and the SMALL from last year with the SMALL from this year. 

Plant 1 died. Plant 2 produced two mutated flowers: a ten-petal mutation and a five-petal mutation. One flower was normal. 3 produced a five flowers corona, three bloomed normally, and the other two remained dormant. What is intriguing is the focus on the number 5 in the mutated design of the flowers and the number 3 which is the total of flowers each plant produced.

Plant 4 died. Plant 5 produced no stem, no bloom. 6 produced a fascinating mutation that merged two stems into one and produced a corona of six normal flowers of six petals each! Here it is the number 6 that prevails in the flowers!

The fact that last years plants mutated is an important clue on how my hypothesis works to explain evolution. Once again the TALL produced more total stem length than SMALL.


Some will argue that my results were caused by coincidence. I will repeat the quote from Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodiniv’s The Grand Design:

«…given a state of “initial conditions”* it should be possible to make predictions as to what will happen to a system within a given period of time. The laws of nature will determine how that system will evolve from those initial conditions over time*2 and prove the predictions if the hypothesis being studied is correct.»

My experiment has met this burden of proof. My predictions came true. The TALL group produced the tallest stems and produced three stems per plant giving this group a noticeable motif. The SMALL group produced the shortest stems and produced two stems per plant giving this group a noticeable motif.

* “Initial conditions” as described in The Grand Design, Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinov: «Those describe the state of a system at the beginning of whatever interval of time over which one seeks to make predictions. With a given set of initial conditions, the laws of nature determine how a system will evolve over time, but without a specific set of initial conditions, the evolution cannot be specified.»
*2 The Grand Design, Stephen King and Leonard Mlodinov p. 26
*A delicious phrase by Jorge Luis Borges
*The Impact of Gravity on life, Emily R. Morey-Holton
*5 Robert L. Jaffe is a Professor and particle physicist at MIT
*6 http://science.nasa.gov/astrophysics/focus-areas/what-powered-the-big-bang/

© 2013
ALL photos by Lena Ghio

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